Brazil's seasons are the opposite of those in the northern hemisphere: summer is December to March, autumn is April and May, winter is June to September, and spring is October and November.
Within the country the climate varies considerably from region to region.
The south east (Rio, Costa Verde, Búzios, Ouro Preto, São Paulo) is warm all year round, but is generally a little cooler (mid 20Cs) and drier from May to September, and hotter (high 30Cs) with heavier rain and higher humidity from November to March. In Ouro Preto and Tiradentes it gets much colder in autumn/winter, with temperatures sometimes dropping to 5C.
Further south (Santa Catarina, Curitiba), it gets colder with temperatures similar to those in Northern Europe.
The north east (Salvador, Recife, Fortaleza) is warm all year (26-34C), but wettest from March to August.
The Pantanal has its dry season from July to October, when it's relatively cool. December to March is the rainy season (wettest in February), when the area floods, much of the wildlife leaves and temperatures can reach the low 40Cs.
The Amazon sees the least rainfall in October, though it stays hot (35C) and humid throughout the year. December to May are the wettest months.
From the first week in December until the end of Carnaval it's the summer school holidays and high season - so best to avoid if you don't want crowds and higher prices. As well as the national public holidays listed below, individual states and cities also have their own separate holidays - 20 January, for example, is a holiday in the city of Rio de Janeiro, but not the state, and 25 January is a holiday in the city of São Paulo.
1 January: New Year's Day
6 February: Cinzas
February/March: Carnaval (exact dates vary)
March/April: Easter (exact dates vary)
21 April: Tiradentes Day
1 May: Labour Day
22 May: Corpus Christi
7 September: Independence Day
12 October: Nossa Senhora de Aparecida
2 November: Remembrance Day
15 November: Republic Proclamation Day
25 December: Christmas Day
31 December: New Year's Eve
NB, please do not rely solely on this information for your travel planning.
BRAZIL: BY AIR:
From the UK: carriers include British Airways, LATAM, Iberia and TAP Portugal.
Within Europe: try Air France, Alitalia, Iberia, KLM, Lufthansa, Swiss, LATAM, TAP Portugal and TAP Portugal.
From the USA: with American Airlines, Continental, United Airlines and LATAM.
BY AIR: carriers include LATAM, GOL and TRIP Linhas Aereas.
BY BUS: All major cities are linked by frequent buses. Always travel first class because the difference in ticket price between first and second class is nominal, while the difference in comfort level is significant. Check out TransPortal.
BY CAR: This is the most convenient way to get around. For car hire see our car rental recommendations. If you prefer not to self-drive, most of the hotels featured on i-escape can also arrange private transfers.
BY TRAIN: Almost non-existent. A couple of steam trains still run, including the picturesque 13km ride from São João del Rei to Tiradentes in Minas Gerais. The Curitiba-Paranagua journey is a spectacular 11km train ride through the mountains.
Vaccinations for Typhoid, Tetanus, Polio and Hepatitis A are advisable, and Yellow Fever vaccinations are recommended for those visiting the states of Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, Distrito Federal, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and Tocantins. Please note that yellow fever vaccinations take approximately 10 days to become effective.
An international certificate of vaccination against Yellow Fever is compulsory for travellers who, within the 3 months prior to their arrival in Brazil, have visited or been in transit through any of the following countries: Angola, Benin, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ecuador, French Guyana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, Peru, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Venezuela and Zaire.
An international certificate of vaccination against Polio is compulsory for children aged between 3 months and 6 years.
If there's any doubt about the need for vaccinations, please contact the Brazilian Consulate General.
If you're visiting the Pantanal or Amazonia you'll need to take a course of malaria tablets and use repellent to reduce the number of mosquito bites. Anti-malarials may also be required for the area around the Iguaçu Falls - consult your doctor.
Make sure you drink plenty of liquids and especially water. Use bottled water and make sure that the seal on the bottle hasn't been broken. Use sunblock to protect your skin against the strong tropical sun.
See Travel Health Advice for general advice for travellers going abroad from the UK.